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Private equity firms specialize in taking over distressed or undervalued companies, restructuring them outside the scrutiny of public markets, then ultimately selling the revived business at substantial profits. This strategy often involves buyouts of public corporations or divestitures using debt – after which painful turnaround measures get implemented reviving once struggling enterprises.

This deep dive into the calculated methods of PE turnaround specialists covers typical deal structures, common turnaround approaches plus tactics improving net returns on renewal efforts. Readers will learn:

  • Advantages of private equitization allowing buyout freedom
  • Primary turnaround strategies including asset sales, cost cuts and strategic shifts
  • Creative deal optimizing tactics like dividend recapitalizations and EBITDA padding
  • Preparing companies for ultimately lucrative exits down the road

While far from easy money, the high risk and reward propositions of private equity buyouts present sophisticated investors differentiated opportunities outside conventional asset classes. Let’s analyze the art and science behind taking enterprises private then revamping them into prime properties again.

Overview: Distress & Opportunity

The life cycle of industries and individual businesses sometimes leaves once high flying companies struggling with dated business models, bloated operations and unsustainable capital structures ill suited to shifting market dynamics. Tech disruption, management turmoil or macro-economic events can trigger steady declines as well.

In these situations, public companies generally find turning things around difficult given short term earnings pressures from analysts and shareholders. Restoring operational excellence requires making difficult job cuts, divesting non-core units or investing precious capital into serious operational overhauls – all short term negative tradeoffs.

But under the vehicle of a private equity buyout, such organizations get liberated from quarterly earnings drag. New owners can implement total turnarounds unrestrained by the glaring scrutiny plaguing public firms beholden to reporting transparency.

Buyout specialists thus seek distressed firms meeting key criteria:

  • Strong underlying fundamentals burdened by high costs or weak strategy
  • Assets substantially undervalued relative to addressable market opportunities
  • Once great brand equity battered by fixable operational issues
  • Dream team managerial upgrades envisioning total strategic course corrections

With the right situational dynamics, financial engineering powered moves offer new ownership and leadership the tools igniting corporate renaissances geared for long term gains over immediate investor payouts – the hallmark of private equity turnaround blueprints.

Deal Structures: Going Private Through Buyouts

The initial buyout process follows systematic steps securing a target company through sufficient debt packaging and negotiating key legal terms protecting the PE firm’s eventual upside.

Valuation – Getting In At The Right Price

The most crucial ingredient involves buying the target asset at sufficiently discounted levels even assuming substantial additional capital gets invested reviving the business. Esteeming true risk-adjusted value requires assessing addressable market sizes, competitive strengths and brand potential given envisioned changes.

Consolidated revenue multiples may start below 1X while unlikely to exceed 5X. In other words, a company would trade for less than annual sales even if greater than 5X leverage gets used. Discounted cash flow analyses also inform valuation models.

Capital Structure – Levering Up The Deal

Unlike cash rich strategic acquirers, PE firms typically fund buyouts through roughly 60% – 80% debt at least initially. By contributing just 20% – 40% equity upfront then leveraging the rest of the purchase amount, returns get amplified from the smaller at-risk base deployed.

Creative lenders allow structuring debt in layered tranches called senior or junior lien obligations tailored to cash flow risks securing interest payments at increasing priority over equity holders. If things go poorer than expected, junior debt absorbs losses before senior positions.

The overriding challenge involves leaving sufficient flexibility addressing unknown situations inevitably arising given distressed deals. This requires engineering contingency options upfront legally.

Key term sheet provisions include strong voting rights, dividend payout powers, drag-along clauses forcing future sales as well as wide latitudes guaranteeing freedom making workforce, asset sale or strategic shift decisions quickly without investor interference if turnaround plans hit snags.

With the keys to the kingdom secured structurally along with leveraged ownership control, private equity groups gain wide autonomy guiding corporate turnarounds more nimbly than public companies or thinly capitalized investors could otherwise attempt.

Turnaround & Value Creation Playbooks

Once a distressed company gets acquired privately, PE owners move rapidly implementing changes balancing short and long term value creation priorities simultaneously. Major turnaround capabilities focus around:

Triaging Bloated Operations

Cost cutting begins Day 1 examining overhead redundancies and unnecessary spending bloat built up over preceding uncompetitive years. Layoffs eliminate unused headcount or excess management while scrutinizing benefits/travel expenditure. Real estate gets consolidated as unused offices shed.

The principle focuses living within reasonable cash generation supporting existing revenues – not hopeful projections. Slimming down facilitates getting cash flows rightized faster off unrealistic legacy expense burdens.

Analyzing Asset Sales for Urgent Liquidity

PE owners next assess ancillary business units or properties unlikely achieving high turnaround benefits relative to buyers potentially offering attractive sale valuations. Surprising liquidity taps unlock quicker working capital relieving turnaround pressure.

Additionally divestitures allow concentrating resources into higher margin core activities best positioned competitively. Focus pares complexity streamlining better financial performance.

Replacing Leadership With Domain Experts

Where incumbent leadership contributed overseeing declines, fresh elite executive upgrades often catalyze immediately credible turnaround commitments reversing enterprise deterioration.

Domain luminaries also lend credentialed credibility assisting difficult restructuring decisions or vouching for future strategic growth plans that employees or public shareholders might otherwise resist initially.

New leaders installed post buyout also reap greater career rewards from equity sharing appreciating over successful multiyear ownership periods – which tends to attract superior talent.

Funding Strategic Shifts Driving Differentiation

Private ownership allows major strategic course corrections counter optimizing competitive positioning over longer runways than typically tolerated by public shareholders. Investing precious capital into reconfigured business mixes or distribution models facilitates setting up better calibrated enterprises.

Options include pursuing mergers expanding verticals or geographies, emphasizing proprietary R&D/offerings or transitioning services into software for better margins long term. By no longer fearing short term earnings downgrades from bold ventures, attractive reinventions get funded.

While no guarantees exist ensuring successful turnarounds even with unchecked flexibility, eliminating prior constraints grants PE ownership their best chances revivingFLAGGING groups into renewed industry leaders over multi-year transformation journeys other investors rarely attempt, let alone achieve.

Value Creation Tactics Boosting Turnaround Returns

Beyond the operational mechanics of slashing expenses or finding lucrative asset divestitures, private equity employs several sophisticated financial tactics further maximizing returns for limited partners.

Juicing IRRs Through Dividend Recaps

After buyouts dramatically slash costs and reduce debt burdens of successful initial restructuring years, most PE owned companies enjoy reliably stronger cash generation funding operations.

At this midway point of their standard 5-7 year hold period before selling, smart PE firms will initiate a special dividend financed by re-leveraging the company at higher debt multiples possible given turnaround improvements achieved.

While tax inefficient for pension fund investors in the buyout fund, dividend recapitalizations provide general partners like PE firms large liquidity events earlier allowing partial cash out on profitable investments at higher IRRs than waiting for final exit years later. Recaps thus enhance internal rate of return metrics crucial continued attracting investor capital into future PE funds.

Goosing EBITDA Optics Before Exits

Similarly as portfolio companies near eventual sales, private equity owners pursue tactics further optimizing key earnings metrics to maximize exist valuations. By strategically directing excess cash flows increasing near term profits rather than smoothing longer term investments, exited companies fetch improved earnings multiples.

Common plays include slashing essential capex budgets that would otherwise fund vital hardware/software upgrades boosting capabilities down the line. Additionally advertising spends gets prodded upwards to aggressively land new business temporarily masking underlying single client concentrations.

Together these machinations visually improve trailing twelve month financial snapshots utilized by acquirers modeling offer valuations from projected future cash flows. So despite down the line headaches created later on under new owners, goosed interim EBITDA optics engine bigger PE exit payouts presently.

Preparing Companies For Lucrative Liquidity Events

Ultimately private equity must monetize portfolio holdings delivering returns for investors. This requires grooming acquired companies for appealing exits eventually – whether through subsequent sales to strategic players or initial public offerings.

Tactics employed ensuring companies stay match fit for investors revolve around maintaining perceivably solid growth trends, identifiable addressable market expansion narratives and balanced investor communications explaining business improvements evident since their PE buyout.

The turnaround patrons must cast ongoing tales convincing enough that future buyers or IPO investors grow comfortable embracing ambitious next stage projections worthy of the lofty valuations PE naturally seeks capturing from their successful rehab efforts executed.

Conclusion

Distressed assets often carry hidden potential requiring the nimbleness, domain expertise and unflinching tactics only executable freed from short term earnings burdens ubiquitous across public markets.

Through quantitative rigor and qualitative savvy rejuvenating leadership and strategy, private equity turnaround specialists invest where others dare not – liberated optimizing assets for maximal gain unconstrained existing investor preferences.

While turnaround buyouts surely prove high risk, the mammoth returns generated by choice deals earning back cost basis multiples as operations get right sized carry such reward justifying the hazards. After all, with great distress comes great opportunity.

For genuinely disciplined financial engineers, repeatedly reviving once left languishing companies offers reliable ways compounding wealth behind the curtain of temporary ownership welcoming assets to retool privately without glare of markets pummeling their potential longer run.

Scott D. Clary

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